Home > Abbreviations




Note: Taxonomic usage follows Nielsen et al. (1996)


For those new to the subject, taxonomic classification terms (e.g. lectotype) can be difficult to grasp. There are several websites, available through the search engines, which give good examples of use.


See Glossary Menu Section for some explanations.



hom. homonym, e.g. '(species name), author, year nec author,' year'  This is specific homonymy (primary & secondary homonymy), relating to the species specific name, not the genus. Occurs when a species is given a name which is already in use

homonym e.g. '(genus name) author, year nec (genus) author, year' . This is generic homonymy - occurs when a genus name is used that is already in use 

The word ordering in the above phrases indicates, first, the true type species name with the correct author followed by another species name with the author who has applied it incorrectly ('nec' means 'and not'). e.g. Pachythyris Felder, Felder & Rogenhofer (1874: pl. 75 fig. 1) [Lepidoptera] nec Pachythyris Boullier, 1976 [Brachiopoda]; generic homonymy (Cowen 1981).


New synonymy, combination and status:


syn.                                 synonym


syn. n.                         new synonymy


comb. n.                          new combination (not used for names in synonymy).

The association of a new combination of a generic name and a specific name to form the name of a species; or of a generic name with a specific name and a subspecific name to form the name of a subspecies.


stat. n.           a change to a new status for a species or subspecies




comb. rev.                   Refers to a species ‘put back again’ into the genus in which it was originally described.


gen. rev.                   generic name removed from synonomy & re-established as a valid name


sp. rev.           species name removed from synonomy & re-established as a valid name


stat. rev.                    indicates reinstatement of earlier used status.


Unavailable & excluded names:


infrasubsp.              infrasubspecific name


misspel.              incorrect spelling


subs. misspel.      incorrect subsequent spelling


sic              quoted as spelled


orig. misspel.      incorrect original of multiple original spelling


praeoc.              unavailable name, first published in synonymy


nomen nudum      a name with no traceable description


suppr.              suppressed name; or name first published in suppressed work.

 e.g. Suppression of Bohadsch J. B. (1761) De Quibusdam Animalibus Marinis, and of the German translation thereof published by Leske N. B. in 1776.  From: Opinions & Declarations 185 Rendered by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (1944) 3: 37-49.


unavail. publ. syn.      unavailable name, first published in synonymy & never validated by subsequent use.




auctt.             misidentification by several/most/all earlier authors. From . auctoris (also spelt auct.)


misident.                            misidentification


misident. sensu (author, year)

                                             an important misidentification by a particular author


Replacement names (objective synonyms):


emend. unjustified emendation


just. emend. justified emendation


repl. name objective replacement


Introduced species:


intro. accident.                    accidently introduced species


intro. delib. deliberately introduced species (for biological control, etc.)


Other descriptors:


et al. ‘And others’, eg other authors on a paper


ms. manuscript


nec ‘and not’


s.lat. sensu lato (in the wider sense)


s.strict. sensu stricto (in the strict sense)


Abbreviations of institutions:


ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia.


ARC   Agricultural Research Centre, Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia


BM(NH)         Former name of the Natural History Museum, London


DVFC                      Danum Valley Field Centre. On the boundary of the DVCA (Danum Valley Conservation Area)


FACE The Face Foundation, Arnhem, The Netherlands. FACE stands for ‘Forest Absorbing Carbon                                                Emissions’


FRC          Forest Research Centre, Sepilok, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia


ITBC Institute for Tropical Biology & Conservation UMS, Sabah, Malaysia

Malay: Institut Biologi dan Tropika Pemuliharaan - IBTP


IZAS Institute of Zoology, Academica Sinica, Beijing, P.R. China.


Leiden                 (= RMNH or RNH) Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie or National Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, Holland (now also known as ‘Naturalis’).


MNH Paris Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France


MNHU See ZMB [Berlin]


NHM Natural History Museum, London, UK. Formerly the British Museum (Natural History) (BMNH)


NHV Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria


NSM          National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan.


UM Oxford University Museum, formerly the Hope Department, University of Oxford, UK


UMS Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


USNH National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA.


ZMB    Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt- Universität, Berlin.  (= MNHU Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt- Universität)


Country/State/Location abbreviations:


W. Malaysia   West Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia


Q          Australia; Queensland


NSW         Australia; New South Wales


NT         Australia; Northern Territory


WA                  Australia; Western Australia


N, S, E, W         North, South, East & West & combinations e.g. S.E. = south-east etc.


asl          Above sea level


BRL                  Borneo Rainforest Lodge, Danum Valley Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia.


DVCA          Danum Valley Conservation Area(Danum Valley Field Centre - DVFC - is on its edge)


FR         Forest Reserve


GTE                 Genting Tea Estate, Pahang, West Malaysia (in the central mountain spine of W. Malaysia. Site of the CFS, or Central Forest Spine, conservation initiative)


InfaPro                     Innoprise-FACE Foundation Rainforest Rehabilitation Project (Danum Valley, Sabah)


LP                            Helicopter Landing Place (some areas of the Ulu Temburong in Brunei are only accessible this way, e.g. Bukit Retak, Gunung Priok)


 MRP          Mega Rice Project (see Glossary)      


NP         National Park


PNG          Papua New Guinea


VJR                 Virgin Jungle Reserve


WS                 Wildlife Sanctuary


Other abbreviations:


Arch.         Archipelago


Bkt.                  Bukit (hill)


BP          before present


c.          circa, (approximately)


Coll.          collection


Eng.           English


FW                  Fore wing


Gg; Gng; Gn   Gunung (mountain)


HQ                  Headquarter


HW                   Hind wing


Hwg           Holzweg (German), forestry road, (often an Eduard W. Diehl collecting locality)


ICZN           International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature


Is.           island


Kg           kampong (village)


Mt.           mountain


my           million years


nr.           near


Sg.          sungei (river)


sp. .          species (singular), spp. (plural)


ssp.          subspecies (singular), sspp (plural)


Un                  underside


Up         upperside




HSB           Dato’ Henry S. Barlow


TMW           Dr. Terence M. Whitaker


SLS           Dr. Stephen L. Sutton



Of  References:


CATS:  database of caterpillars feeding on New Guinea plants (Miller et al, 2007).


HOSTS          database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants (Robinson et al., 2001).


Fig.          Figure (singular), figs. (plural)


fig’d  figured


LepIndex http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/lepindex. Important digitised NHM card index system (Beccaloni et al. 2003). A key reference resource for this website


p.                 page


pp.                 pages


Pl.                 Plate


RTS          Robinson, G.S.,Tuck K.R. & Shaffer, M. (1994);  A Field Guide to the Smaller Moths of South-east Asia,  Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur & The Natural History Museum, London.




HSB Coll.    Private Collection of ‘Dato’ Henry S. Barlow


JHRT Coll.     Private Collection of Dr. J.H.R. Thiele, Dettenheim.


SLS Coll.     Private Collection of Dr. Stephen L. Sutton & Dr. Terence M. Whitaker


Schulze Coll.     Private Collection of Dr. Christian H. Schulze


Symbols used:


[        ]     Added information, usually derived from external evidence


[1866] 1865     This results from delays in publication. The date of actual publication is in    [  ], derived from evidence external to the work itself,  followed by the title-page date (the date on which it was supposed to have been published).

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